Differential RF Scalar Correction for ATE
Differential RF components usually require balun transformers to adapt to common ATE single-end instruments. Test parameters involving gain and particularly noise require that signal levels be precisely known at the DUT input and output. This paper outlines some techniques to correct for fixture losses and gains. A low noise amplifier (LNA) will be used for specific example but the techniques should apply to other differential components. (more)

NF (Noise Figure)
Noise can be composed of both environmental deterministic noise (e.g. spurious RF) and random thermal noise. This note focuses on random noise and its measurement. A perfect electronic device would perform its function and add no noise that wasn't presented at it's input. Practical devices add noise and therefore reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of their system. Noise factor is the ratio of noise power out to noise power in (output referred by Gain). And noise figure is noise factor in dB units. Of particular importance are devices in the early stages of amplified systems since their noise will be amplified in subsequent stages. (more)

IP3 (3rd Order Intercept)
The presence of 2 or more tones in a non-linear device generates intermodulation products. These products are the sum and difference of multiples of the fundamental tones. Many of the spurious tones are out-band and cause no problem. The third order difference tones are nearest the fundamentals. They very likely fall in-band and add non-linearity and distortion to the output. (more)

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